|Created by||Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay|
|Portrayed by||Chandrabati Devi|
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Chandramukhi is one of the pivotal characters in the 1917 Bengali novelDevdas by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Her character was inspired by the Hindumystical singer Meera, who devoted her life to Lord Krishna; similarly Chandramukhi devoted her life to Devdas. Chandramukhi is portrayed as a hooker with a heart of gold in the novel and its film adaptations. Chandramukhi means 'moon faced' or 'as beautiful as the moon' in Sanskrit.
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In the novel
Chandramukhi is a courtesan who lives in Calcutta also known as Kolkata. She is considered the most beautiful and richest prostitute in the area of Chitpur. She is first introduced to Devdas by Chunnilal, who returns to Calcutta heartbroken after the marriage of Parvathi 'Paro'. Devdas, disgusted over Chandramukhi's profession insults her and leaves her kotha. Chandramukhi, impressed by Devdas's attitude, later falls in love with him after realizing his steadfast love for Paro. She leaves her profession for Devdas and convinces him to marry her; he, however, has to reluctantly reject her offer as he has devoted his life to Paro. In return, Chandramukhi does not force him to be with her but waits patiently for him. Subsequently, she also moves to Ashthajhari village, where she lives in a muddy house located at the bank of a river and helps the needy. After some struggle, she meets with Devdas again, who now accepts her love.
In the film
In most of the film adaptations of Devdas, the story of Chandramukhi is similar to the novel. However, in most of the films her humanitarian work in helping the needy is not depicted. Unlike in the novel, a scene in which Chandramukhi and Parvathi meet was added in Bimal Roy's 1955 version when Paro, played by Suchitra Sen riding in a human rickshaw, comes across Chandramukhi, played by Vyjayanthimala, who just stares at Paro without a single word being exchanged between them. The meeting scene of Paro and Chandramukhi in the 1955 version was still regarded as one of the memorable scene in Bollywood with the background music adding the impact to the scene. In the 2002 version, the director, Sanjay Leela Bhansali, extended the interaction between Paro and Chandramukhi, also showing them dancing together to the hit song 'Dola Re Dola'.
|Year||Title||Essayed by||Language||Other cast||Notes|
|1928||Devdas||Niharbala / Miss Parul||Silent||Phani Sharma||Tarakbala|
|1935||Devdas||Chandrabati Devi||Bengali||P.C. Barua||Jamuna Baruah|
|1936||Devdas||T. R. Rajakumari||Hindi||K.L. Saigal||Jamuna Baruah|
|1953||Devadasu||Lalitha||Telugu, Tamil||Akkineni Nageswara Rao||Savitri||–|
|1955||Devdas||Vyjayanthimala||Hindi||Dilip Kumar||Suchitra Sen|
|1955||Good Bye My Lover||Molly Lim||Malay||S. Roomai Noor||Chang Lai Lai||Malaysian film; also known as Selamat Tinggal, Kekasihku|
|1965||Devdas||Nayyar Sultana||Urdu||Habib Taalish||Shamim Ara||Pakistani film|
|1974||Devadasu||Jayanthi||Telugu||Ghattamaneni Krishna||Vijaya Nirmala|
|1979||Devdas||Supriya Choudhury||Bengali||Soumitra Chatterjee||Sumitra Mukherjee||also known as Debdas|
|1982||Devdas||Anwara||Bengali||Bulbul Ahmed||Kabori Sarwar||Bangladeshi film|
|1989||Devadas||Ramya Krishnan||Malayalam||Venu Nagavally||Parvathy|
|2002||Devdas||Indrani Halder||Bengali||Prasenjit Chatterjee||Arpita Pal|
|2002||Devdas||Madhuri Dixit||Hindi||Shah Rukh Khan||Aishwarya Rai|
|2009||Dev.D||Kalki Koechlin||Hindi||Abhay Deol||Mahi Gill||A modern-day take on Devdas|
|2010||Devdas||Meera||Urdu||Nadeem Shah||Zara Shaikh||Pakistani film|
|2013||Devdas||Moushumi||Bengali||Shakib Khan||Apu Biswas||Bangladeshi film|
|2017||Devi||Shataf Figar||Bengali||Paoli Dam||Shubh Mukherjee||modern-day take on Devdas|
genderbent versions of characters
|2017 – present||Dev DD||Sanjay Suri||Hindi||Asheema Vardaan||Akhil Kapoor||web series|
modern-day take on Devdas
genderbent versions of characters
|2018||Daas Dev||Aditi Rao Hydari||Hindi||Rahul Bhatt||Richa Chadda||modern-day take on Devdas|
Chandramukhi is one of the first characters in an Indian novel to deal with prostitution. She was often depicted as a prostitute with a heart of gold. The character of Chandramukhi had paved the way for other portrayals of prostitutes in films like Sadhna, Pyaasa and Pakeezah. Actresses such as Nargis, Suraiya and Bina Rai refused to enact the role of a prostitute in the 1955 film of Devdas, which later went to Vyjayanthimala.
Chandramukhi was well-received in India by critics. In 2006, Rediff listed Chandramukhi in their list of 'Bollywood's Best Tawaif'.Nikhat Kazmi of The Times of India also ranked Chandramukhi at #5 in his list 'Tart with a heart', saying that 'The egotistical Paro may have given her boy friend the goby, but self-sacricficing Chandramukhi was willing to put everything on hold — her livelihood too — for her lover'.
There are many actresses who have portrayed Chandramukhi in film adaptations of Devdas. The first notable award was won by Vyjayanthimala in 1956 when she won the Filmfare Awards, known as Bollywood's Oscar, in the Supporting Actress category. However, she was also the first person to decline the award, as she thought that her role was not a supporting one but was of equal importance and parallel to that of Parvathy in the 1955 version. Other actresses who played Chandramukhi in Hindi versions of the novel have also won this award.
The following are awards and nominations received by actresses who have played the role of Chandramukhi in film:
|1957||Devdas||Vyjayanthimala||Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress||Won||She refused to accept the award as she thought that Chandramukhi and Parvathi were parallel roles and not a main and a supporting role|||
|2002||Devdas||Madhuri Dixit||Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress|
|Screen Award for Best Supporting Actress|
|Zee Cine Award for Best Actor – Female||Nominated|
|IIFA Award for Best Actress|
|2010||Dev.D||Kalki Koechlin||Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress||Won|
|Stardust Award for Breakthrough Performance – Female||Nominated|
|2013||Devdas||Moushumi||Bangladesh National Film Award for Best Actress||Won|
|Meril-Prothom Alo Award for Best Film Actress (people’s choice)||Nom|||
- Chandramukhi (2005) Tamil film
- ^Guha, Srejara (2002). Devdas: a novel. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN978-0-14-302926-7. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- ^Vidya Pradhan (21 Jan 2008). 'Heart of gold, speckled with sin'. The Hindu. Retrieved 16 Feb 2012.
- ^Ghose, Anindita (August 2006). 'Of Names of Women in Hindi Cinema: An Exploration in Semantics'(PDF). e-Social Sciences. p. 11. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-04-10. Retrieved 16 Feb 2012.
Madhuri Dixit in ‘Devdas’ (2002) is Chandramukhi which means ‘moon faced’.
- ^Shubha Tiwari (2005). Indian fiction in English translation. New Delhi Atlantic Publication. p. 151. ISBN978-81-269-0450-1. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- ^Corey K. Creekmur (13 December 2001). 'The Devdas Phenomenon'. University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^Vijay Lokapally (20 February 2009). 'Devdas (1955)'. The Hindu. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- ^'Fighting Queens'. Outlook (magazine). 13 December 2001. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^Allan Koay (2 Apr 2007). 'A new era'. The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 22 Feb 2012.
- ^Lindsay J. Proudfoot, M. M. Roche (2005). (Dis)placing empire: renegotiating British colonial geographies. Ashgate Publishing Limited. p. 160. ISBN0-7546-4213-5. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^Sumita S. Chakravarty (1993). National identity in Indian popular cinema, 1947-1987. Harward Academic Publication. p. 271. ISBN978-0-292-71156-3. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^Meghnad Desai (2004). Nehru's hero Dilip Kumar in the life of India. Lotus Collection, Roli Books. p. 95. ISBN978-81-7436-311-4. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^Lata Khubchandani (5 Jul 2002). ''I did not approve of Vyjayanthimala as Chandramukhi''. Rediff. Retrieved 18 Feb 2012.
- ^ abDinesh Raheja (30 Oct 2006). 'Bollywood's top tawaifs'. Rediff. Retrieved 18 Feb 2012.
- ^Nikhat Kazmi (16 January 2006). 'Tart with a heart'. The Times of India. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- ^Mishra, Vijay, Bollywood Cinema: A Critical Genealogy(PDF), Victoria University of Wellington, p. 9, archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-09-24, retrieved 2012-02-18
- ^Sheela Bhatt (22 Jun 2012). 'A star spangled evening'. Mumbai, Maharashtra: Rediff. Retrieved 18 Feb 2012.
- ^'Vyjayanthimala'. Upperstall. Retrieved 16 Feb 2012.
- ^'The Winners – 1956'. Indiatimes. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- ^Subhash K. Jha (2003-02-22). 'Shah Rukh, Ash, Ajay Devgan's rich haul'. Rediff. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- ^Raymond Ronamai. 'The winners of the 55th Filmfare Awards are...'Oneindia.in. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- ^Bollywood Hungama News Network (2010-01-16). 'Nominations for Max Stardust Awards 2010'. Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 2012-02-16.[permanent dead link]
- ^'মেরিল—প্রথম আলো পুরস্কার ২০১৩' [Meril Prothom Alo Award, 2013]. Prothom Alo (in Bengali). April 17, 2014.
- Chandramukhi on IMDb
|Directed by||P. Vasu|
|Written by||V. R. Bhaskar(Dialogues)|
|Screenplay by||P. Vasu|
|Story by||Madhu muttam|
|Based on||Manichitrathazhu (Malayalam)|
|Edited by||N. P. Satish|
|2 hours 26 minutes|
|Box office||₹200 million (US$2.8 million)[better source needed]|
Apthamitra (transl. Close friend) is a 2004 Indian Kannada-language horror film directed by P. Vasu, and starring Vishnuvardhan, Ramesh Arvind, Soundarya, Avinash and others. This was actress Soundarya's last film. It is an official remake of the 1993 Malayalam filmManichithrathazhu with a few scenes based on the 1997 Malayalam film Aaram Thampuran. The movie was dubbed in Telugu as Soundharya Chandramukhi. The movie was dubbed in Hindi as Chandramukhi ka Bhool Bhulaiya Mahal. The film ran for one year in the main theaters across Karnataka. Apthamitra was later followed by its sequel, Aptharakshaka (2010). P. Vasu also remade the movie in Tamil in 2005 as Chandramukhi.
Ramesh (Ramesh Arvind) and Ganga (Soundarya) are married couple who recently move into Mysore to buy an ancient palace, against the wishes of his uncles and elders (Dwarakish & Pramila Joshai) of the family. His uncle agrees to reside with them with his two daughters Vani and Hema, on one condition that the room on the first floor which is locked and sealed should not be visited by anyone in the family. They have their care-taker Rangajja (Shivaram) who lives in the outhouse with his granddaughter Sowmya (Prema).
During their stay in the house they come to know that this palace earlier belonged to Raja Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur. He had a court dancer named Nagavalli from Andhra Pradesh, whom he was in love with. But Nagavalli already loved a fellow dancer named Ramanatha, who used to reside in a house just behind the palace. When the Raja came to know of their affair on an Durgashtami day, he be-headed Dancer Ramanatha and burned Nagavalli alive. Nagavalli vowed at the time of her death that she would seek revenge of her death from the Raja by burning him alive on very same Durgashtami day, as like her.
Strange things start to happen in the palace and everyone suspect Sowmya, who is always found at the place of the incident. So, Ramesh calls in his psychiatrist friend Vijay (Vishnuvardhan) to help him clear of the misconceptions regarding the palace and its history. Ramesh's uncle (Satyajit) is not happy with the way Vijay functions and is always very suspectful of him. Vani, Ramesh's cousin is in love with an orphan-dance teacher who incidentally resides in the same house behind the palace. Vijay comes to know of this and tells Ramesh's uncle about this and the alliance is approved by all in the family and their marriage is fixed.
When the whole family is out of town to visit Mahadev, to decide his wedding with Vani, Ganga with help from Sowmya opens the room in the first floor with the key given by Sowmya. While she entered the room, Sowmya comes running to tell not to open the door as the key-maker who made the key had died. But Ganga told her not to believe on this superstitions.
During this time there are attempts to kill Ramesh by someone unknown, which every time is foiled by Vijay. Even Vani is attacked once by someone unknown. So Ramesh's uncle calls upon an Acharya Ramachandra Shastri (Avinash) to perform some Shanti pooja upon the palace. Though Ramesh is not interested in all these proceedings he agrees on advice of Vijay.
On the eve of Engagement ceremony of Mahadev and Vani, Ganga accuses Mahadev of trying to molest her - which is refused by both Mahdev and Vijay. Upon hearing this Ramesh gets angry upon Vijay and shouts at him to get out of his house. Acharya stops the family from doing so and asks Vijay to tell them the mystery behind the strange incidents.
Vijay reveals to everyone that Ganga is behind all the strange incidents and she only tried to kill Ramesh and Vani. Ganga who visited the first floor room was enamoured by Nagavalli and her diary. Since Ganga suffered from Multiple personality disorder or Split personality disorder, the mystery behind Nagavalli's story compelled her to assume herself as Nagavalli, compelling the spirit of Nagavalli to enter her body. She (Nagavalli inside Ganga) now intends to kill Vijay as he had posed in front of her as Raja Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur, on the coming Durgashtami day as vowed by Nagavalli while dying. Vijay explains to everyone that since Nagavalli inside Ganga thinks that Mahadev is the dancer Ramnath. Vijay on Durgashtami Day, makes Nagavalli (Ganga) believe that he himself is the king, and employs a sophisticated system to make Nagavalli burn a dummy with his image on it. Nagavalli satisfies herself and leaves Ganga's body. Vijay is also safe. Vijay helps Ganga psychologically later to regain herself. Ramesh thanks Vijay for his help.
- Vishnuvardhan as Dr. Vijay / Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur/Captain
- Ramesh Aravind as Ramesh/Vice Captain
- Soundarya as Ganga / Nagavalli (Voice dubbed by Shashikala)
- Prema as Sowmya
- Dwarakish as Mukunda
- Avinash as Acharya Ramachandra Shastri
- Pramila Joshai as Rukku
- Shivaram as Rangajja
- Satyajit as Shivananda
- Shridhar Jain as Dancer & Prof. Mahadev
- Sneha Eshwar as vani
- Bhoomika Shetty as Hema
|Soundtrack album by|
|Released||26 July 2004|
|Genre||Feature film soundtrack|
Gurukiran scored the film's background music and composed for its soundtrack, with lyrics for the tracks written by V. Manohar, Kaviraj, V. Nagendra Prasad and Goturi. The soundtrack album consists of six tracks. The track Kaalavannu Tadeyoru was taken from the 1977 film, Kittu Puttu which had Dwarakish and Vishnuvardhan playing the lead roles as well, alongside Manjula, the lyrics for which was written by Chi. Udayashankar.
|1.||'Anku Donku'||V. Manohar||S. P. Balasubramanyam, Chithra||4:40|
|2.||'Kaalavannu Tadeyoru'||Chi. Udayashankar||Hariharan, Gurukiran||5:05|
|3.||'Kana Kanade'||Kaviraj||Madhu Balakrishnan||5:01|
|4.||'Pata Pata'||V. Nagendra Prasad||Udit Narayan, Chithra||4:32|
|5.||'Baara Baara'||Goturi||Rajesh Krishnan, Nanditha||4:43|
|6.||'Raa Raa'||Goturi||Nithyashree Mahadevan, Rajesh Krishnan||4:41|
- 52nd Filmfare Awards South
The film, won five Filmfare Awards that includes:
- Best Film – Kannada: Dwarakish
- Best Director – Kannada: P. Vasu
- Best Actor – Kannada: Vishnuvardhan
- Best Actress – Kannada: Soundarya
- Best Music Director – Kannada: Gurukiran
Chandramukhi Tamil Movie Download
- ^''Nammanna' complete!'. sify.com. 12 October 2005.
- ^'Apthamitra (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) - EP'. iTunes. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- ^News from Viggy.com .
- Apthamitra on IMDb